Carbon dating margin of error
In 2014 wind and solar PV had capacity factors of 17% and 11% respectively, compared with 92% for nuclear (IEA figures).In 2011 Russia provided almost 40% of the gas, followed by Norway, Netherlands and the UK, while 14% was produced domestically.In particular, the agreement put a cap of 2623 billion k Wh on lifetime production by all 19 operating reactors, equivalent to an average lifetime of 32 years (less than the 35 years sought by industry).Two key elements were a government commitment to respect the rights of utilities to operate existing plants, and a guarantee that this operation and related waste disposal will be protected from any "politically-motivated interference".
While these policies have created an impressive roll-out of renewable energy resources, they have also clearly generated disequilibrium in the power markets, resulting in significant increases in energy prices to most users, as well as value destruction for all stakeholders: consumers, renewable companies, electric utilities, financial institutions, and investors.” This is the introductory paragraph in a July 2014 report by Finadvice for the Edison Electric Institute and European clients. In a 28 November 2015 Special Report , having pointed out that French households pay about half as much as German ones for electricity, commented: “Germany has made unusually big mistakes.
Germany’s electricity production in 2016 was 648 TWh, with demand of 595 TWh and net export of 54 TWh.