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To a still lesser extent glaciers existed in Africa, for example in the High Atlas, the mountains of Morocco, the Mount Atakor massif in southern Algeria, and several mountains in Ethiopia.In the Southern Hemisphere, an ice cap of several hundred square kilometers was present on the east African mountains in the Kilimanjaro massif, Mount Kenya and the Ruwenzori Mountains, still bearing remnants of glaciers today.During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier advance and retreat.Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was approximately 22,000 years ago.According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must even have been times of seasonally open waters.Outside the main ice sheets, widespread glaciation occurred on the Alps-Himalaya mountain chain.The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat.
Approximately 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began.Studies suggest the mountains of Southern Africa were mostly subject to mild periglaciation during the last glacial cycle and the annual average temperatures were about 6° C colder than at present.The estimated 6° C temperature drop for Southern Africa is in line with temperature drops estimated for Tasmania and Southern Patagonia during the same time.The environment of the Lesotho Highlands during the Last Glacial Maximum was one of a relatively arid periglaciation without permafrost but with deep seasonal freezing on south-facing slopes.
Periglaciation in the Eastern Drakensberg and Lesotho Highlands produced solifluction deposits, blockfields and blockstreams, and stone garlands.
In contrast to the earlier glacial stages, the Würm glaciation was composed of smaller ice caps and mostly confined to valley glaciers, sending glacial lobes into the Alpine foreland.